Radiography is a proven and useful modality that uses differences in x-ray attenuation to evaluate human anatomy and pathology. The goal is to establish the presence or absence and nature of disease by demonstrating normal anatomy or the effects of the disease process on anatomical structures.


Fluoroscopy is a technique that provides moving projection radiographs and is mainly performed to view movement (of tissue or a contrast agent), or to guide a medical intervention, often carried out in theatre, using a portable fluoroscopy machine called a C-Arm. It can move around the surgery table and produces digital images for the surgeon.

Fluoroscopy is now being used by medical professionals spanning a wide range of clinical specialties. Orthopedic surgeons use fluoroscopy to perform procedures such as joint replacement, vertebroplasty/ kyphoplasty, implant localization and other procedures that correct structural deformities of the skeleton. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), stone extraction, nephrostomy, retrograde pyelogram and other relevant procedures are performed under fluoroscopic guidance by Urologists in operating theatres. Vascular surgeons and anesthesiologists also use fluoroscopy in operating theatres during angiography, CVP line/a-port or pacemaker insertion. As fluoroscopy makes interventions less invasive, there is less patient morbidity and mortality. For some high risk patients, interventional procedures may be the only alternative as routine surgery may carry increased risk for the patient. Furthermore, it will, or is reasonably expected to, prevent the onset of an illness, condition or disability, and is expected to reduce the chance of physical, mental or developmental effects of an illness, injury or disability.